ISN VIDEO LEGACY PROJECT

DR. GABRIEL RICHET
INTERVIEWED BY DR. HUGH de WARDENER
CHARING CROSS HOSPITAL 1997


HDW: Gabriel, I suppose we’d better start at the beginning. What age did you decide to be a doctor?

GR: I decided to become a doctor when I was 16 in a Latin class. As a matter of fact I belong to medical dynasty. I am the fourth Professor of Medicine at the Faculté de Paris and the big man of our family was my grandfather, who was awarded the Nobel Prize (Charles Robert Richet, 1913 - for his work on anaphylaxis). But out of 23 of his grandchildren, I was the only one who was involved in the medical field. To a man like this one, it was a blow to the honor of the family but what a burden upon the shoulders of a normal teenager.

HDW: This was the Nobel Prize winner?

GR: Yes, this photograph shows our work in his private library.

HDW: When you were a medical student, I think you told me that you had certain views about how medicine was being taught.

GR: Yes. I didn’t know exactly if it was (wise) or not but during my first year as a medical student I went to Hôtel-Dieu and then I had to do only minor things with the patient who was the same age as me. A drunken brawl caused a rupture of the femoral artery in the groin and gangrene set in, and after amputation, streptococcal septicemia developed. One day the big boss, the Head of the Department of Surgery - one of the first in Paris - came to operate himself. That had never been seen and intravenous injection of a new drug - it was the first sulphonamide - but he didn’t know that to cure the patient he had to make many intravenous shots - four or five a day to treat the patient as well as mice in the experimental laboratory.

HDW: #9; he only gave one injection?

GR: Yes, the patient died and I was very sad and disappointed. I remembered this throughout all my student days. Very often I thought I should have changed to another occupation.

HDW: You got to know this patient of yours very well?

GR: Yes, he was my age. Everyday I tried to give him my compassion and I don’t know if I gave anything to him.

HDW: I’m sure you helped.

GR: It’s difficult to say.

HDW: I think we both qualified in 1939. What happened to you during the War?

GR: The usual things that young Frenchmen did. I was drafted and ended up as a not severely wounded prisoner of war for six months, and was freed according to the Geneva Convention. Afterward I went back to my job as an intern and did minor underground work at the same me.

After Paris had been freed, at the end of gust 1944, I volunteered for the French Army and I was badly wounded and afterwards I joined again the Army and I fought in Germany and then the War was over.

HDW: You were decorated too, weren’t you?

GR: Yes, but I would say I’ve been lucky because at the beginning of April we had a bloody affair the day before General de Gaulle visited the Army and one Legion of Honor medal was given to all of the Regiment.

HDW: You had a ration of one Legion of Honor per regiment?

GR: Yes, one was given. Unfortunately, for the other officers, as the Legion of Honor is only given to officers, they all were killed or severely wounded.

HDW: You were the only survivor?

GR: There were survivors, but not intact.

HDW: Yes, well that’s one form of luck. Now, much of your life was interwoven with Jean Hamburger. How did you come to meet him?

GR: I met him just after I became an intern in 1939 and he had impressed me a lot because he was one of the rare and unusual people who introduced experimental facts into clinical reasoning.

For example, I asked for an interview and he invited me for dinner and we spoke together for two or three hours. A couple of weeks after that I met him again in 1946.

HDW: What was he like? I always thought he was rather austere.

GR: Yes, he was austere to a certain extent because he was entirely devoted to what he thought important. I would say he was earnest. He was as earnest at the bedside as with the hospital organization and in wring and in any other activities but I took care of two or three of his school mates and they told me that he was full of fun then. I would like to try and show you how he behaved at a dinner offered by the junior staff to the senior staff just to "pull their legs". Look at this. It is funny - he smiles and it was a very agreeable evening at the Hôpital Necker.

HDW: After the War you joined Hamburger at the Necker in 1951. What was the Necker like when you joined it?

GR: The Necker was a lovely hospital but only on the outside in the courtyard. Look at the courtyard. It is a common courtyard but inside the buildings it was absolutely dreadful because we had only two wards with 30 beds in each of them. Not only two wards but we only had two doctors - two M.Ds and two interns - to do the job and I would like to show you another photograph and in this picture you could think that the group was very important. As a matter of fact the only row, the first row, was made up of doctors. All the others were nurses and medical students. We had four rows of medical students and nurses but among the first row five of them became professors of medicine.

HDW: I gather that from the start the Department [specialized] in kidney diseases. Is that right?

GR: Yes it is right. We started with kidney diseases but not entirely. We started in kidney diseases because we had names and especially Hamburger that attracted kidney diseases but we received any other trauma patients. Certainly it was exactly the same everywhere in our hospitals as nephrology was just being born and they mixed in general medicine with nephrological patients.

HDW: It was really a general medical ward but you got more kidney patients? What were the outstanding renal problems at that me?

GR: Renal failure. Acute renal failure for one reason, because we had intestinal dialysis but the patients we treated then have almost disappeared because it was carbon tetrachloride intoxication, mercury intoxication, mismatched blood transfusions, and post-operative sepsis.

The only one that remains now is postoperative sepsis. We treated them with intestinal dialysis which was more or less tricky because it is difficult to manage at the same me the active transfer or the passive transfer within the gut from the lumen of the gut to outside, or the reverse.

We had a special patient whose first name was Simone but the family name was more important. She was called de la Vie and she had a postpartum sepsis and she became anuric and she was transferred to Paris from more than 400 km away. She was anuric for thirty-three days. She was treated with intestinal dialysis for 13 days and she recovered. It was very interesting because she was really the first patient with whom we were absolutely sure that without dialysis she would have died, and we had one ?hilarious episode with her.

HDW: You had another patient who was anuric?

GR: No, no. It was this patient and one day she pulled out the intestinal tube. Hamburger very seriously warned her husband and the husband came back to his wife’s bed, slapped her face twice and said, "Bringing you to Paris was expensive. You have to pay the doctor in order to come back home and run the farm with me." This was an old style psychological treatment for his wife, who was the mother of four children.

HDW: And she went back and she was well?

GR: Exactly.

HDW: Obviously the Department was heavily involved in research. What were your particular interests?

GR: I was interested in clinical investigation because it was the only field in which we could work and I noticed two unknown facts at that me in anuric patients: One was actually erythrocytopenia and I discovered that in the bone marrow of our anuric patients erythroblasts disappear after one or two or three days of anuria and reappear spontaneously 10-20 days later. This was before Jacobson had shown that the hematopoietic factor described by Carnot in 1906 came from the kidney.

HDW: You have a picture of that paper of yours haven’t you?

GR: Yes. You can see here the decrease in erythroblasts in me patients in which we had two or three bone marrow examinations. The erythroblast count descends almost to zero and climbed again afterwards.

HDW: What was your other project?

GR: My other project was to study endogenous water. We had been interested by the fact that our anuric patients lose weight after they began dialysis, just when the shift from the catabolic state and anabolic state appeared and more importantly, when they began to eat and to drink. For that reason we studied in anuric patients the origin of this weight lose.

HDW: In this example of yours, how much weight was lost then?

GR: Ten kilos from a woman whose usual weight was 56 kilos. That means 17% of her weight. It is a very important proportion of the body mass.

HDW: Where do you think all this water was?

GR: It came from proteins, carbohydrates and most likely lipids.

HDW: #9; where was it?!

GR: That’s the problem that is still unknown but they had no edema, no hypertension, no blood volume increase and we supposed it is activated within the cells.

HDW: I believe that it was about this me that at the Necker in the Department in which you were working, the concept of an intensive care ward first saw the light of day. How did this emerge?

GR: In gust 1952, we had to treat a lot of patients with anuria and we had a lot of non-renal problems and me of our patients had died from these non-renal problems. When Hamburger came back from vacation, I gave him an account of what happened and he told me we should gather all the means to overcome a latent situation due to the arrest of a vital function.

HDW: He wanted to gather all the knowledge existing at that me on how to deal with these problems?

GR: Yes, and he wanted to call this group réanimation médicale, and it is now know as "Intensive Care". It was very important.

I will never forget the two hours I spent with him planning the book. He sat on the table, took paper and drew up a list of the chapters and I would like to show you the book we wrote, "Réanimation Médicale". It is ridiculous now because the Intensive care unit has changed much. Anyhow, it was the first in France. The consequences were very important as it resulted in a new organization of our unit. It made possible the creation of postoperative intensive care units and more importantly it changed the minds of many French physicians.

HDW: Tell me about the first renal transplant in a healthy but anephric subject.

GR: He was a 15 year old boy called Marius Renard. He was apprentice to a roofer. He fell from the scaffold and suffered a traumatic rupture of the right renal pedicle. We did a nephrectomy. But - his was a single one! He was transferred to Necker and we were unable to do anything. We had no chronic dialysis, not even a single artificial kidney. His mother insisted on giving one of her kidneys. As the blood groups were more or less compatible, within the limits of the knowledge of the day, we agreed to do it. The boy was transplanted on the Christmas Eve, one week after the accident and I would like to show you the photograph to let you see how the family was happy. The patient is smiling and the mother too.

HDW: #9; this is a day or two after the operation?

GR: Yes, the day after the operation or two days later. For 22 days we had a rather good result. That means that urea clearance remained around 15 cubic centimetres per minute. It’s enough to survive even if it is not perfectly well. We learned that we could pay attention to this fact from the beginning. It was the first transplantation and we had no experience of this kind of case.

HDW: Did he pass a lot of water?

GR: Yes, between 2 and 3 cubic centimetres a minute. Between 2 and 4 litres a day. Maybe we pushed it a little bit.

HDW: But that was from being anuric.

GR: Yes, on the 22nd day after the transplantation abruptly anuria reappeared. The kidney was hard and the surgeon looked at the kidney to make sure that there were no trouble in the renal artery but the patient died me days later. This case raised wonderful emotion all over the world and we received a lot of letters and when the boy died, they cried at his funeral. They were many hundreds of flowers sent from different countries of Europe, even from Asia and certainly it was a very important me. This transplantation had been the first one to be absolutely as perfect as the experiments in dogs by Dempster in England and Simonsen in Denmark. It was perfect because it was free of chronic uremia. There was no preexisting disease with circulation of the supposed nephrotoxins, no nephrological mishaps, no infection of the renal tract, thanks to our surgeons who anastomosed the ureter to the bladder of the boy. There was no stenosis of the renal artery. It was a true immunological rejection. We should have noticed me warning signs - minimal protein and a slight increase of the blood pressure. From a scientific point of view, it created another mind and John Merrill, who was interested and who had tried transplantation in chronic renal failure, was with Peter Medawar in London, and he flew across and it was the first me I met him and he became a friend.

HDW: That was the first me you met John Merrill?

GR: Yes.

HDW: Well, you knew him quite well. You went to Boston, didn’t you?

GR: Yes, I went to Boston. me months later Hôpital Necker was ready for hemodialysis. We had new premises and the question was to have an artificial kidney, we decided, Hamburger and I, that I should go to Boston to learn Merrill’s expertise. It was two marvelous months. For the first me in many years, I had no routine work. I had me for reading and thinking and talked with many colleagues whose route had been different from mine and it was wonderful. I learned a lot of things and I became a true adult nephrologist. John had arrived at a turning point of his medical life. He was no longer interested in biochemistry of uremia. He knew that there were many kidney diseases, and I remember that during his rounds we discussed things like drugs and which kinds of glomerulonephritis it is and he was ready for kidney biopsy indeed! He was al ready for transplantation but he thought that the only possibility was identical twins. Moreover, socially and intellectually we were very close and I accompanied him to Square Island in Maine and to many wine and cheese pares.

HDW: I think you’ve got a picture of the first artificial kidney at Necker?

GR: Yes, I’ve got a picture.

HDW: What sort of kidney was that?

GR: It was huge - something like an elephant artificial kidney. It was the rotating kidney of Kolff, with a big drum. It took two hours to prepare it for use but the result was marvelous. We changed the prognosis of acute uremia from 20 per cent survival to 80 per cent survival, and these kinds of patients were referred to us even from Africa.

HDW: What then became the main research interest in the Department when this happened?

GR: My main research at that me was in the biopsy. Obviously. I had heard that Kark’s group in Chicago had favorable results and we decided, with the help of Renée Habib, a well known renal pathologist, who was just beginning her knowledge and expertise in kidney diseases, to biopsy all of our patients except those where a biopsy would not be useful and as a matter of fact, two years later, we knew that there were many types of glomerulonephritis and we had seen almost all of them and then Paul Michielsen from Louvain came to Paris, and he ran the electron microscope.

HDW: Paul Michielsen wasn’t an electron microscopist.

GR: Yes, but he was a fellow in the Department and he took two years more in Paris learning electron microscopy at the College de France and afterwards did electron microscopy for renal diseases. As a matter of fact, Necker was a cradle of the new renal morphology. However, I read in a Ciba Foundation meeting in 1961 concerning renal biopsy that many pathologists did not think it could help anything in nephrology and first of all I remember a plea for considering Bright's disease instead of many kidney diseases and the conclusion written by an eminent pathologist from Baltimore at the Johns Hopkins, said that he didn’t believe that it could help the progress of nephrology.

HDW: What were your research interests?

GR: My main research interests at this me was to try to understand protein hyper catabolism and I did it with Raymond Ardaillou. We tried to measure the serum protease in patients and to compare the level of serum protease in the blood and the protein catabolism of the patient. Maybe it was rather easy in the patient in the anuric phase because he keep, for instance, all his urea and for that we used to measure free triglycine pepdase productivity in the serum and as a matter of fact they moved together. But we were not biochemists.

HDW: You didn’t know which was the chicken and which was the egg!

GR: Exactly. The consequence we knew and then we waited because I think protein catabolism is a general fact that is very important in clinical medicine in any kind of severe disease but this work had a very good result. When Raymond Ardaillou became one of my best fellows and he is still working at Hôpital Tenon after a very brilliant career.

HDW: Now, I think we’ve come to the First International Congress of Nephrology in 1960. You were the Secretary.

GR: Yes, I was Secretary General and I don’t understand that how I could have accepted the position! We had a very good sponsor, the Association des Eaux d'Evian, a resort on Lake Geneva. We took care of sciences and all material organization just to be sure to have a good meeting. They gave us money for having 20 invited guests and all of their accommodation were free. We had these people on the program. we gathered very easily 400 scientists for ordinary members. They were gathered, for one reason, the scientific program was interesting, but all of them were guests of the Société des Eaux d'Evian. It was a scientific success. During the duration of the Congress they discussed the new world of micropuncture of the tubules, the urine acidification processes, the natuiretic factors, the mesangial cells seen with the electron microscope, the first inventory of glomerular lesions, and Balkan nephritis, of hemorrhagic nephritis, the first results of chronic dialysis and the first results of transplantation. It was a turning point and it was important that a new clone was born. It’s name was Nephrology, a word created in the middle of the 19th century and exhumed by Jean Hamburger.

HDW: I always thought Hamburger invented the word.

GR: No, it appears in Littré's Dictionary from 1862, as study of kidney diseases.

HDW: The International Society of Nephrology was then formed?

GR: Yes, but I should remind you of the diplomatic troubles I had - the places at the table for the banquet. I made a lot of mistakes! Fortunately, nobody was against me!

HDW: You sat me next to a Japanese, I remember.

GR: The Soviet delegation had written asking to attend the Congress but on the morning of the Congress a delegation of 15 persons arrived and insisted on presenting the paper. It was a paper that described the naturietic effect of mercurial diuretics. No comment!

HDW: Now tell me about the formation of the International Congress.

GR: We had a business meeting and the International Society of Nephrology was a difficult delivery indeed. A very small part of this was the idea put on the table by Jean Hamburger. Those in favor of Jean Brod from Prague, Czechoslovakia, Merrill from Boston and the one from London [Dr. J. Joekes, ed]. Very astutely, Hamburger shifted to Friday to discuss the venue of the next Congress. He perceived all of the difficulties. Prague was chosen and if a new Congress should be organized, then the International Society of Nephrology should be founded - first step.

Second step - if the International Society of Nephrology does exist, it is obvious that it should have a journal. Nephron was then created on the spot with George Schreiner and I as editors.

HDW: What was being Editor of Nephron like?

GR: It took three years for the Society and Nephron to take off and Nephron was a success. It’s circulation was 1,500 in 1972. Jean Dormont was the nuts and bolts of the operation - no not exactly that - the nuts and bolts of the operation were carried out by Jean Dormont. In 1972 the Society changed its publisher and it had been obliged to change the name and Kidney International was born. I would like to say that in all the discussions that nobody was opposed to Jean Hamburger, who was the mainstay of all these enterprises.

HDW: Now, you left the Necker in 1961 to head up your own Nephrology Department at the Hôpital Tenon. Why did you leave?

GR: Well, for a very simple reason. I was 44 and the me had come to build up an independent nephrology team. I must confess that to build such a team had been my first and principle aim for decades.

HDW: I think it was that with the example of Necker in mind, the authorities at Tenon had everything prepared for you.

GR: Not at all. I moved from a castle to a run down cottage! It was originally built at the end of the 19th century and I have a picture from the beginning of the century and at that period Tenon was exactly as it was in the 60s when I arrived, except one thing. The public urinal was no longer there! Secondly, the prison wall has been replaced by a fence but I had an intellectual asset which was very important. That means two fellows, Raymond Ardaillou and Claude Amiel. They were very close to me and we decided to take the rough with the smooth and work hard and a special building was put up, named "Paris Castaigne." I’m quite sure you don’t know who this "Castaigne," was but "Castaigne," was a physician at the end of the 19th century in Tenon and in this place he measured normal excretory function by excretion of methylene blue.

HDW: Yes, that was quite something. What was the research aim of the Department? I make a distinction between the research aims of the Department and your own.

GR: When we arrived Amiel, Ardaillou and I had one project to study urine acidification produced by acute hypercalcemia without an acid load. That means it was a tubular modification for unknown reasons and they are still unknown and after intravenous injection of calcium glucamate or calcium chloride the pH of the urine decreases to between 2 and 3 units in less than 30-40 minutes which explains why in hypercalcemia there could be metabolic alkalosis.

A similar project was to study uric acid excretion. We studied this by simultaneous injection of labeled uric acid PAH and K and following the excretion of these constituents the lutes of urine and we could demonstrate in this way that there was intrarenal co-circuits explaining that uric acid arrives after K before PAH in the urine.

HDW: It’s a renal short circuit? Different paths?

GR: Yes.

The last thing we studied at the me was important uricosuric benzobrorone which increases the clearance of uric acid to that of inulin.

HDW: What was your own project.

GR: These were my projects but I did them with others.

HDW: But you had me that were more personal.

GR: Yes, I will tell you afterwards. First I will tell you of the arrival of Liliane Morel-Maroger, now Striker. She was a young pathology student and right from the start she has done a wonderful job. Back then Tenon was one of the hospitals where renal pathology was done because there was a good Pathology Laboratory. She implemented all new techniques when they appeared and besides that there was a very good clinical team who were doing research and moreover there was good physicians. Pierre Verroust had a very good immunological group run by one of your former fellows and the Biology Laboratory was very active and almost all the physicians were in the Biology Laboratory working on one question or another. That resulted in the fact that we had an independent institution, small but beautiful, with a variety of groups. there was no conflict between the groups but they gathered to improve their results.

HDW: Al, you were all on the same corridor weren’t you? You were very close to each other.

GR: Exactly, we had 300 metres of laboratories.

HDW: Now, tell me about your own research.

GR: My own activities were administrative because the head of a clinical unit specialized in that. We used research laboratories. You have a burden of administrative work and moreover I had teaching. I had to teach medical students and my group and I liked to provided intellectual nourishment. Organizing lectures with invited speakers because I didn’t want to have "in-breeding" in my unit. I had to give my clinical pathology sessions, biopsy sessions once a week and discussions on special topics. For instance, at the beginning of our Dialysis Unit and renal transplantation we had a weekly meeting for resolving problems and informing other members of the group what was going on. At last my personal pleasure was to teach at the bedside. Why? Because I suppose it is the best way to check and recognize the knowledge of the students and the way I did it was to insert in each case under discussion me new scientific information and more importantly to teach clinical methods. That is frequently forgotten now because science is everywhere in medicine but we still need to know what a clinical method is, to use it appropriately.

I had me research too. Two problems. The first project was dark cells.

HDW: Which dark cells?

GR: It’s a cell described by Sh………………… at the end of the 1900s.

HDW: Whereabouts in the kidney?

GR: They are in the distal and collecting tubules and we observed in experimental animals with Madame A………………………, who is a biologist and a school teacher as well, that the dark cells had morphological changes when the animal is submitted to metabolic alkalosis with sodium bicarbonate or potassium bicarbonate or to respiratory acidosis breathing CO2 gas.

HDW: This was a phenomenal thing, I think. It was the first me that there was a morphological change described with a functional change?

GR: Exactly and the first demonstration of the connection between physiology and morphology within the kidney. The dark cells are sometimes called intercalated cells but the research to a great extent and it is now an important problem of renal biology.

HDW: You had another pet subject.

GR: Yes, I had another one. It was an observation of glomerular tufts after intravenous angiotensin which was explored by the scanning electron microscope. We injected angiotensin into normal and sodium-depleted rats and observed the capillary tufts by the scanning electron microscope. We determined the special dose to induce a vaconstriction and the special dose for obtaining a definite vaconstriction of the tufts was 100 less than in normal rats. This is opposite to the effect of angiotensin on the blood pressure. Certainly there is in the organism different vascular nets which do not obey at the same me or in the same direction.

HDW: How did you stimulate your team?

GR: My team was a constant worry. First, before answering your question, I would like to describe my general rule - I tried to induce in every new intern a mental attitude of curiosity. I explained to them how profitable it is to be detect any inconsistency, clinical or experimental, with currently accepted theories. My second concern was if there is any doubt, check by yourself - in a book, in an experiment, in a control. And the third one was that when somebody was eager to study a subject, I never imposed my ideas. We had free discussions. Moreover, I tried to provide him with the necessary means - intellectual tools, funds and support. It’s the boss’s responsibility.

Now I can answer your question - yes, this attitude rubbed off on me of them. What proportion is impossible to say. I am only aware of me of the successful results. Many of my fellows left nephrology. Many of them have high positions in different disciplines of medicine. I have been surprised how many of them became surgeons, I suppose because they learned decisiveness(?) in our unit. Many people who work in nephrology units outside Tenon came from this Hospital, either in clinical nephrology or in research nephrology. At last I had when I retired a team which still exists in Tenon. I have to give me names, Ardaillou, Ronco, Rendeau, Agége, Veaux and many others. All of them are running active groups and recruiting young fellows themselves now. One remark may interest you. The anarchy at the beginning of our unit was characterized by the different values, different starting points and now all of these groups converge into what is biochemistry of kidney structures in health and disease, in animal and human, in vivo using biopsies, in vitro using cell cultures and it is very satisfying to try to understand how a healthy kidney can become an endstage kidney.

HDW: Your spirits lives on. In 1981, you became President of the International Society of Nephrology. I think you enjoyed that. What do you think you achieved during those years?

GR: First of all let me tell you why I enjoyed it because I had been a founding member of the International Society of Nephrology and I attended most of the meetings of the Society. First of all, I had a great advantage. I was the first President of the International Society having financial assets. Yes, I had money to spend and Kidney International was doing well. It was making money! , I was able to organize postgraduate sessions in Tunis and in Lima, Peru and I could provide money for organizing future Congresses and moreover, for giving travel grants for new nephrologists. But my main ?achievement maybe has been to draw China into the Society. I have a lot of friends in China because there were French universities in Shanghai and I knew people who studied in Paris and then went back. I brought them in and we organized for the Society a trip with Priscilla Kincaid-Smith and her husband and the Brickers and afterwards the Chinese joined our International Society and there are no more blanks on the organizational world map of the Society.

HDW: Well, you’ve covered the world.

GR: Yes, we’ve covered the world. But moreover, I have very great satisfaction in discussing a new contract with the publisher. I had thought with you many years before, 12 years before, that we should always have the possibility of opening discussions with the publishers. We discussed a new contract and at my request the following sentence was included in clause 15: "Upon formal request from the Society the journal account may be subject to ding." It is short but as a matter of fact me years later, it proved to be very useful for the Society.

HDW: You’ve described well the prolonged battle between fundamental science and its acceptance by clinicians. Now the battle is between reductionism and integration. Would you agree that clinicians are in the middle of this battle?

GR: Yes, I would agree certainly, even if it is difficult to do. On the one hand, new techniques - chemistry, physics, biology and molecular biology and molecular chemistry extend the fields of clinical investigation. On the other hand, clinical experimental investigators and their prophetic dreams provide new ideas and new concepts which must be followed and that means that the true nephrologist should constantly refresh their scientific knowledge. This they often do and for that reason they are important amongst the leading physicians.

HDW: Since you retired you’ve written several papers on the history of nephrology.

GR: And clinical science. I saw nephrology grow up under the wing of biology. The clinical science of nephrology has existed for 150 years when it was described by Bright, Christisen of Edinburgh and Rayer in Paris. All the books of these three leaders were published before 1842 but the meaning of this science was absolutely ignored and it was the work done during the 19th century. What has been done of that kind during the last century is a mine of experiments and have shown that science and physiology are interwoven and they have to be disentangled. That means that the history of nephrology is a must to understand what has gone wrong in this field. I found that to track the footprints of nephrology is exciting, interesting and a pleasure.

HDW: You’re very good at it too. They are very good articles. Well, let’s go on. I think you wanted to talk about two of your colleagues.

GR: Yes, but I shall speak French because there are two French friends of mine, and I know you will translate it to English later [see English text following….ed].

Jean Hamburger

Tout d'abord, je voudrais vous montrer comment it était à l'âge de quinze ans. et ça sera la première d’une série defigures II est là, assis à la gauche de son professeur de lettres - du professeur principal de sa classe. On le voit bien sur cette diapositive que l'on va vous projetor dans un instant.

Deuxiemement, je voudrais vous rappeler qu'en 1947 au 17 Novembre à la Société Française d'Urologie, Hamburger a rappelé l'état de la question de la transplantation qui. fut l'oeuvre de sa vie.

La transplantation chirurgicale est point, car les anastomoses urinaires sont maintenant parfaites, et deuxièmement, l'héparine ne l'èse pas le rein. Mais en même temps, Hamburger a défini les trois obstacles qui s'opposent à la réalisation des transplantations. et qui derront s’opposer:

une trop longue ischémie, ce qui suppose qu'il faut preparer un processus de conservation du rein et il pensait surtout à la perfusion . À le moment-l à. Connaître les règles de la compatibilité tissulaire comment Landsteiner avant découvert les groupes de sang qui ont rendu possible la transfusion sanguine, et bien entendu la mise au point de moyens qui s'opposeraient a la réjection immunologique. Je vous rappelle qu’l a announcé cela c'était en 1947.

En 1952, il ya eu le drame de Marius Renard, ce jeune anéphrique dont nous avons parlé tout a l'heure.

En 1959 il ya eu l'homme du milieu de cette projection vous le voyez bien est un nommé Siméon qui était le premier - comment pourrais-je dire? - jumeau non-identique qui a été transplanté en France, en juin 1959.

A côté vous avez le premier jeune homme qui a été transplanté chez un parent éloigné. Il étart dodone pas un jumeau Il a transplanté été le 12th fevrier 1962, et il est actuellement cardiologiste en Normandie, et a été pour un temps deputé membre du parlement français.

Et puis je vous montre Jean Hamburger devant le bâtiment qu'il a fait construire et qui a fait de Necker un grand hôpital néphro-urologique.

Peu d'années après, il était a Londres avec Peter Medawar, et voici le photographie de tous les deux.

Et enfin je montre sa photographie en 1992 juste avant sa mort, quand il était Président de l'Academic des Sciences à Paris, cette prestigieuse Société qui a 300 ans d'existence.

Et maintenant, pour terminer la premiére année de cours des Actualités Néphrologiques. Regardez qui était a droite de Hamburger - c'était son ami Professeur René Mach de Génève, et qui etair a sa gauchee, c'est Hugh de Wardener que je remercie de m'aider pour cette difficile présentation.

Claude Amiel

La deuxieme personne donc je veux évoquer la mémoire en français est Claude Amiel. Claude Amiel est mort il y a moins d'un an. Je l'ai connu pour la première fois en 1953, quand it était étudiant à Necker, et nous avons créé tout de suite des liens de travail et des liens familiaux particulièrement étroits, et je crois que-entre nous il a au moins si cen’est plus donné qu'il n’a reçu.

Quatre points ont marqué sa carrière – vous savez qu’l est né en 1930 et il est mort en 1996.

C'est d'une part ses recherches scientifiques sur les tranferts epithéliaux. Quand il était jeune interne je l’avais recommandé a François Morel, qui a eu pour lui le même estime professionel et humain que j'ai eu pour Claude Amiel.

C'était un excellent médecin. Il était professeur de physiologie, et jusqu'à sa dernière année, ses collègues lui demandaient des avis cliniques. Et Ce n'est pas fréquent, et ils ne faisaient pas ça pour lui faire plaisir, mais parce'qu il yavair toujours un résultat - une conséquence intelligente dans un avis de Claude Amiel.

Claude Amiel, un bourreau de travail, a occupé des responsabiliés administratives prodiges. N'oubliez pas (ce) que Claude Amiel a travaillé auprès de différents ministres, auprès des directeurs de nos grands institutions de recherche, et chaque fois son honnêteté fonūere et son intelligence. et la qualité de son travaill’a fait apprécier.

Est-ce qu’annund nous, à la Société Internationale de Néphrologie, n'oublie qu’il a été l’assistant rédacteur en chef de Robinson, et puis d'Andreoli, qu'il a été Sécrétaire Général de la Société, et qu'il devait etre President s'il véiu.

Enfin, ce fut un grand universitaire, car il a fabriqué une école, il a réuni autour de lui tous ceux qu'il pouvait aider totalement à devenir un grand néphrologiste.

Maintenant,. Mon cher Hugh de Wardener, j'en ai fini et c'est a toi d'intervenir pour traduire cette évocation de mes deux amis.

HDW: C'est tres bien fait. Je vais faire ça plus tard.

GR: Oui.

ENGLISH TRANSLATION:

Jean Hamburger

First of all I want to show you how he looked at fifteen years of age and this will be the first of a series of pictures - here he is on the left of his teacher of literature, the homeroom teacher of his class. We can see him clearly on this slide, which I will show you in a moment.

Second, I want to remind you that at the meeting of the French Society of Urology on the 17th of November 1947, Hamburger summarized the position with regard to transplantation.

Surgical transplantation did not exist at that time, because the techniques for urinary anastomosis had not been perfected, and heparin does not harm the kidney. However, Hamburger summarized three factors that made transplantation difficult.

The first was too prolonged ischemia of the organ, which Hamburger supposed could be overcome by renal perfusion. Second, regarding tissue compatibility and how Landsteiner described the blood groups, which made possible blood transfusion, Hamburger understood well the mechanisms that inhibited immunological rejection. This was, I remind you, in 1947!

In 1952 there was the drama of Marius Renard, the young anephric boy of whom we spoke a moment ago. In 1959 came the young man you see clearly in the middle of this picture, named Simeon, who how shall I put it? - received the first transplanted kidney in France from a non-identical twin, in June 1959. Alongside him is another young man who received the first kidney transplant from a more distant relative, not a twin, on February 1962. Today he is a cardiologist in Normandy, and for a time was a deputy in the French parliament.

Next I'll show you Jean Hamburger in front of the building he had constructed, and which made the Necker a major Nephro-urological centre.

A few years later, here is a photograph of him with Peter Medawar in London.

Finally, this photograph was taken just before his death in 1992, when he was President of the Academy of Science in Paris, a distinguished Society with 300 years of history.

To end with, here is the first year of the course of Actualities Nephrologiques: look who is on Hamburger's right - it is his friend René Mach of Geneva and on his left? Hugh de Wardener, whom I thank for helping me today with this difficult interview.

Claude Amiel

The second individual whose memory I would like to evoke is Claude Amiel, who died less than one year ago. I met him for the first me in 1953, when he was a student at the Necker, and immediately we struck up a particularly close personal and professional rapport.

Il a au mouns donne si ce u’est plus donné qu’lu’a reçu

Four points mark his career, remembering he was born in 1930 and died in 1996. On the one hand there is his scientific research on epithelial transport. When he was a young intern, I recommended him to François Morel, who shared my great professional and personal esteem for Claude.

He was en excellent clinician. Although a Professor of Physiology, up until his final year, his colleagues would ask him for clinical advice. This is rare, and they did it not to please him, but because he always gave intelligent and useful advice.

In his office he undertook an enormous administrative load. Don't forget he worked with different government agencies, with the directors of our great research bodies, and everywhere his fundamental honesty, his intelligence and the quality of his work was much appreciated.

Regarding the International Society of Nephrology, don't let us forget that he was Assistant Editor-in-Chief of Kidney International to Ike Robinson and then to Tom Andreoli, that he was for years Secretary of the Society, and he would have become its President had he lived.

Finally, he was a great teacher, founding a school and gathered around him all those whom he could help to become complete nephrologists.

Now my dear Hugh, I'm finished and it is up to you to translate this evocation of my two friends.

HDW: You did it very well.

Bibliography of Dr. Gabriel Richet

Marquezy RA, Richet G: Spirochétose ictérooohémorragique grave avec hématémèses abondantes. Guérison. Influence possible de la vitamin K. Bull et mem Soc med d hop de Paris. 58:137-139, 1942.

Parrot JL, Debray C, Richet G: Sue le mécanisme de l'ulcère gastrique expérimental produit sur le ciinchophène. Elévation de l'histamine sanguine. Compt rend Soc de biol 137:729-731, 1943.

Alajouannnnniine T, Thurel R, Richet G: Le retentissement de la pyrétothérapie sur les lésions nerveuses (notament dans la sclérise en plaques). Rev neurol 75: 285, 1943.

Parrot JL, Richet G: Sur une substance vasodilatative présente dans certains extraits de sang et d'exudat. Compt rend Acad d.sc, 217: 580, 1943.

Parrot JL, Richet G: Action du cyanure de mercure sur les organes isolées du cobaye. Un noveau type de libération de l'histamine. Compt rend Soc de biol 138:364-365, 1944.

Parrot JL, Galmmmiche P, Richet G: Action des antagonistes de l'histamine sur la résistance des capillaires. Compt rend Soc de biol 139: 467-469, 1945. LG - French

Parrot JL, Richet G: Accroissement de la sensibilité à l'histamine chez le cobaye soumis à un régime scorbutigène. Réduction de cet accroissement par l'administration de vitamine P. Compt rend Soc de biol 139:1072-1075, 1945. LG - French

Parrot JL, Debray C, Richet G: Sue le mécanisme physiologique des ulcères gastro-duodénaux. Presse med 53: 2180219m 1945.

Chiray M, Debray C, Parrot JL, Richet G: Traitement des ulcères gastro-duodénaux par un antihistaminique. Semaine d.hop.Paris 21: 587-591, 1945.

Hamburger J, Richet G, Lubetzki J, Millet J: Sur un cas d'anurie prolongée durant plusieurs semains, avec survie artificiellement entretenue par l'épuration extrarénale jusqu'a guérison. Bull et mem Soc med hop Paris 68:187-195, Jan 1952. LG - French

Richet G: Les phénomemes de libération d'eau endogène au cours de l'anurie. J urol Paris 58:252-259, 1952. LG - French

Hamburger J, Richet G: Sur un phénomène de libération d'eau endogène observé notamment au cours de certaines annnnuries. Bull et mem Soc med hop Paris 68:368-375, March 1952. LG - French

Richet G: Sur certains procédés d'épuration extra-rénale. Perfusion intestinale et exsanguino transfusion. Verhanl. Deutsch Gesellsch.inn. Med. Kong. 58, pp. 161-191, 1952. LG - French

Coursaget J, Richet G, Nordmann R, Hamburger J: Elimination urinaire des albumines marquées par l'iode radioactif (I131) chez le sujet atteint de néphrose lipoïdique. J urol Paris 58: 782-789, 1952. LG - French Bull et mem soc med hop Paris 68:1178-1186, Nov, 1952. LG - French

Richet G, Crosnier J: Examen d'un albuminurique, J Urol, Paris, 59:747-762, 1953.

Richet G: La numération des hématies urinaires au cours des néphropathies. J urol Paris 59: 295-301, 1953. LG - French

Richet G, Ducrot H: Hémorragie gastrique mortelle au cours d'un traitement par l'aurémycine, semaine hop Paris. 29:2682-2683, Sept. 1953. LG - French

Richet G, Alagille D, Fournier E: L'érythroblastopénie aigue de l'anurie. Presse med 62:50-53, Jan 1954. LG - French

Richet G: Notions physiopathologiques et pathogéniques sur la llithias rénale. Rev prat 4:665-669, March 1954. LG - French

Hamburger J, Richet G, Antoine B: Aspetti medici e biologici di un tentativo di traplanto renale nell'uomo.. Minerve med 1:1462-1468, May 1954. LG -Italian

Richet G, Crosnier J, Mathe G: Treatment of anuria. Postgrad MJ 30:467-475; 493, Sept 1954. LG -

Richet G: Les hématuries médicales. Rev Prat 5:29-32, Jan 1, 1955. LG - French

Richet G, Crosnier J: La participation médicales au tratement de l'insuffisance rénal aiquë des infections urinaires. J Urol, Prais, 60:833-837, 1954. LG - French

Richet G: Role of parenteral perfusion in maintaining the water-electrolyte balance. Vie med. Par. 37:1105, 1956. LG - French

Masson M, Crosnier J, Richet G: Analyse de 93 ionogrammes dans l-insuffisance rénale. Contribution a l'étude du taux du magnésium et des sulfates du plasma. J Urol, Paris, 61:333-340, 1955. LG - French

Hamburger J, Richet G: Le rein artificiel. Marseille-méd 93:405-431, 1956. - LG - French

Hamburger J, Richet G: Enseignements tirés de la pratique du rein artificiel poooour l-interprétation des désordres électrolytiques de l'urémie aiquë. Rev Franc Etud Clin Biol 1:39-55,, Jan 1956. LG - French

Derot M, Michon L, Couvelaire R, Wolfromm R, Chabbert Y, Richet G: Nephrology and urology: treatment of antibiotic-resistant urinary infections. 2099-100, 1956. LG - French

Richet G, Alagille D, Nezeloff C, Mery JP: Physiopathology and pathogenesis of hemolytic ppostabortal annurias. J urol med Par 62:556-61, 1956. LG - French

Derot M, Michon L, Couvelairs r, Wolfromm R, Chabbert Y, Richet G: Nephrology and urology; no-salt diet in renal disases.] Presse med. 64: 2119--20, 1956. LG - French

Derot M, Michon L, Couvelairs R, Wolfromm R, Chabbert Y, Richet G: Nephrology and urology; when and how should one operate on prostatic adenoma? Presse med 64: 2143, 1956. LG - French

Derot M, Michon L, Couvelaire R, Wolfromm R, Chabbert Y, Richet G: Nephrology and urology: when does renal tuberculosis require surgery? Presse med. 64:22059=60, 1956.

Derot M, Michon L, Couvelaire R, Wolfromm R, Chabbert Y, Richet G: Nephrology and urology: medical treatment of urinary lithiasis. Presse med 64:2079-80, 1956. LG - French

Richet G; Water and obesity. Rev Fr Clin Biol Paris 2:22-5, 1957. LG - French

Hamburger J, Richet G: The artificial kidney. Bull Acad Nat Med Par 14:1-25, 1957.

Richet G, Antoine B: Emergency treatment of post-abortionn hemolytic complications. Sem Hop Paris 33: 2550-1, 1957. LG - French

Richet G, Alagille D: Early proteolysis during ppostabortal hemolytic anuria. Rev Fr Clin Biol 2:475-88, 1957. LG - French

Richet G, Fritel D: Vitamin D2 poisoning with considerable hypercalcemia: immediate disappearance of clinical and humoral disorders under the effect of a chelator (EDTA). Bull Soc med hop. Paris, 73:361-7, 1957. LG - French

Domart A, Bour H, Coirault R, Gros HF, Richet G: Poisonings. Presse med 65: 855-8, 1957. LG - French

Richet G: Renal acidosis. Presse med, 65:641-4, 1957. LG - French

Bour H, Coirault R, Gros JF, Richet G, Siguuier F: Intoxication: treatment of delirium tremens. Presse med 65:811-3, 1957. LG - French

Richet G, Ardaillou R: Renal acidosis. Rev prat Par 7:621-2, 1957. LG - French

Richet G, Drouhet E, Ducrot H, Junger P: Treatment of 2 cases of septicemia caused by Candida albicans complicating a severe anuria. Action of amphotacids. Bull Soc Med Hop Paris 75:780-6, 1959.

Richet G: Interstitial fluids of the kidney and elaboratation of urine. Rev Franc Etudes Clin Biol 5: 17-9, 1960.

Richet G, Ducrot H, Delzant JF: Major complications of antibiotics. Presse med 68:11-112, 1960. LG - French

Richet G: Physiology of renal excretion of calcium. Path Biol (Par) 8:745-8, 1960. LG - French

Ardaillou R, Najean Y, Altman J, Richet G: [Study of erythropoiesis in nephrectoomized rats and those bearing a renal allograft.] Rev Franc Etudes Clin Biol 5: 189-190, 1960.

Ardaillou R, Slama R, Richet G, Bernard J: [Uricemia and urinary excretion of uric acid in the course of acute leukoses.] Rev Franc Clin Biol 5:590-592, 1960.

Richet G: General outline on the renal manifestations of hypercalcemia. Path Biol (Par) 8:749-51, 1960. LG - French

Richet G: [Renal insufficiency from muscular crushing (Bywaters' crush syndrome). Introduction to a discussion.] J Urol Med Chir 66:631-5, Sept 1960. LG - French

Richet G, Ardaillou R: [Tripeptidase activity of plasma and nitrogen catabolism..] Nutr Dieta (Basel), 2:91-114, 1960. LG - French

Richet G, Ardaillou R: The gouty kidney. Vie medicale, 41:625-9, 1960.

Antoine B, Slama R, Josso F, Montera H de, Habib R, Richet G: [The destruction of the renal parenchyma by invasion by calcium oxalase crystals. Two new cases of 'renal oxalosis". Presse med 68:503-6, 1960.

Couvelaire MR, Hamburger J, Kuss R, Richet G: [Nephrology and urology. Indications and contraindications of ascending pyelography.] Presse med 68:449-50, 1960.

Najean Y, Ardaillou R, Richet G, Bernard J: [Demonstration of the aactivator effect of the plasma on hemoglobin synthesis in vitro.] C R Acad Sci (Par) 250:2085-6, 1960.

Ducrot H, Crosnier J, Hamburger J, Meyer DE, Schmidt JJ, Richet G, Siguier F, Slama R: [Nephrology and urology. How to recognize and treat lupus nephropathies.] Presse Med 68:531-2, 1960.

Crosnier J, Fritel D, Hamburger J, Merger R, Richet G: [Nephrology and urology. How should proteinuria be managed in a pregnant woman?] Presse med 68:91-92, 1960.

Richet G, Montera H, de Ducrot H, Ducroiset B, Vassalli P: [Cortical necrosis and renal insufficiency during acute pancreatitis. 2. Mechanism of the renal attack and the place of pancreatitis among the causes of renal insufficiency.] Presse Med 68:2332-4, 31 Dec 1960. - LG - French

Richet G, Lenoir JF: [Use of tocopherylquinone in the ambulatory therapy of arterial hypertension.] Presse Med 69:178-9, 28 Jan 1961. LG - French

Gaulthier M, Castainge P, Hamburger J, Richet G: [Present incidence and treatment of lead poisoning.] Presse Med 69:245-6, 4 Feb 1961. LG - French

Richet G, Ardaillou R, Najean Y: [Renal insufficiency and erythropoiesis. Clinical and experimental data.] Bull Soc med Hop Paris 76:599-608, 1960.

Richet G, Ardaillou R, Najean Y: [Renal insufficiency and erythropoiesis. Clinical and experimental research.] Minerva Med 52:41111-5, 7 Feb 1961. - LG - Italian

Richet G, Ardaillou R, Montera H, de Slama R, Bougault T: [The gouty kidney. Study of 31 cases of nephropathy associated with gout.] Presse Med 69: 644-7,, 22 Mar, 1961. LG - French

Richet G: [Renal excretion and metabolism of uric acid.] Rev Franc Etudes Clin Biol 6:329-331, Apr 1961. - LG - French

Richet G: [The diet and proteinuria.] Rev Prat (Par) 11:1153-4, 11 April 1961. LG - French

Milliez P, Hamburger J, Pequignot H, Richet G: [How to diagnose and treat thromboses of the renal veins.] Presse Med 69: 1283, 10 Jun 1961. LG - French.

Mathivat A, Broustet P, Cottett J, Crosnier J, Hamburger J, Laroche C, Milliez P, Richet G: [How to combine hypotensive agents in the treatment of essential arterial hypertension.] Presse Med 69:1577-8, 29 Jul-5 Aug 1961. LG - French

Richet G, Montera H, de Ducrot G, Ducroiset B, Vassalli P: [Cortical necrosis and renal insufficiency in acute pancreatitis….] Acta Chir Acad Sci Hung 2:201-14,, 1961. LG - French

Richet G, Ardaillou R, Montera H, de Slama R, Bougault T: [Study of 31 cases of nephropathy associated with gooout.] Urol Nephrol (Par) 67:1-19, Feb 1961. LG - French

Richet G, Ardaillou R, Najean Y, Mery JP: [Polyglobulia appearing during the development of a chronic uremia with renal atropia. Isotropic study of erythropoiesis.] Rev Franc Etud Clin Biol 6:909-12, Nov 1961. LG - French

Richet G, Ardaillou R, Najean Y: [The anemia of renal insufficiency.] Progr Med (Par) 89:497-505, 24 Dec 1961. LG - French

Richet G, Ardaillou R: [The kidney in gout.] Rev Prat (Par) 12:1295-309, 21 Apr 1962 LG - French

Richet G, Ardaillou R, Amiel C, Lecestre M: [Acidification of urine and increase of urinary ammonia after intravenous injection of calcium glllluconate in man.] Rev Franc Etud Clin Biol 7:355-61, April 1962 LG - French

Richet G, Ardaillou R: [The removal of urinary vein obstructions and their nephrological consequences.] J Urol Nephrol (Paris) 68:285-99, April 1962. - LG - French

Richet G, Ardaillou R, Najean Y: [Erythroblastopenia and renal insufficiency.] Nouv Rev Franc Hemat 2:754-9, 1962. LG - French

Hamburger J, Richet G, Crosnier J, Funck-Brentano JL: [Functional renal insuffieicny caused by water-electrolyte disorders]. Maroc med 41: 1005-30, 1962. LG - French

Richet G, Ardaillou R, Sultan Y: [Neuropsychic implications to chronic uremic patients treated by methanesulfonate…] Bull soc med Hop Paris, 133:199-205, 1962. LG - French

Richet G, Ardaillou R: [Removal of urinary obstacles and its nephrologic results.] Maroc Med 41:11144-52, 1962. LG- French

Richet G, Ardaillou R, Monterrrra H de: Nephritis in gout. Rheumatismmmm 19: 10-6, 1963.

Richet G, Ardaillou R, Amiel C: [Metabolic alkalosis, a unrecognized renal consequence of hypercalcemia.] Presse med 71:1119-22, 1963.

Laroche C, Nenna A, Cornet A, richet G: [Change in serym proteins in the course of chronic infection of the renal parenchyma.] J Urol Nephrol ((Paris) Jan-Feb, 1963 LG - French

Lagrue MG, Baylon H, Funck-Brentano JL, Hamburger J, Richet G: [Current means of diagnosis and treatment of renal amyloisis.] Presse med 71: 1559-60, 1963.

Funck-Brentano JL, Baylon H, Bouvrain Y, Hamburger J, Pequuuignot H, Richet G: [What are the new possibilities of extra-renal purification/] Presse med 71: 1379-81, 1963.

Ardaillou R, Amiel C, Lecetre M, Richet G: [Acidification of the urine after intravenous injection of calcium salts in man. II. Comparative effects of calcium gluconate and calcium chloride.] Rev Franc End Clin Biol 8:541-52, 1963.

Richet G, Ardaillou R, Amiel C et al: Acidification de l'urine par injection intraveineuse de sels de calcium. J Urol Nephrol (Paris) 69:373-98, 1963.

Richet G, Ardaillou R, Amiel C, et al: Acidification de l'urine par injection intraveinneuse de sels de calcium. Rein Foie 5:31-51, 1963.

Richet G, Delzeni JF, Mérillon H: Hyperparathyroidddie secondaire de l'insuffisance rénale. J Urol Nephrol (Paris) 69: 551-68, 1963. LG - French

Richet G, Lissa J: L'acidurie de l'alcalose métabolique n'est qu'un faux paradoxe. Rev Franc Etud Clin Biol 8:753-6, 1963.

Richet G, Ardaillou R, Montera H de: Les complications rénales de la goutte. Rein Foie 5:137-45, 1963. LG - French

Richet G, Z Evianu de Prahy. II Mezinarodni Nefrologicky Kongres. Cas Lek Cesk 1103:885-7, 1964. LG - Czech

Richet G: Metabolicccka alkaloza ako malo znamy renalny nasledok hyperkalcemie. Bratisl Lek Listy 1:641-654, 1964. LG - Czech

Richet G: Saturnisme et insuffisance renale chronique. Acta Clin Belg 19: 1-4, 1964.

Richet G, Albahary C, Ardaillou R, et al: Le rein du saturnisme chronique.ev Franc Etud Clin Biol 19: 188-96, 1964. LG - French

Hillemand P, Loygue J, Richet G, et al: Rectocolite hémorragico-purulente et ulcéreuse compliquée sur l'amylose. Presse med. 72: 1571-4, May 1964.

Hinglais N, Zweibaum A, Richet G: Les lèsions précoces de l'amylose expérimental du hamster. Etude au microscopie electronique, Nephron 1: 16-30, 1964.

Hamburger J, Richet G, Crosnier J, et al: Les methodes d'exploration rénale. Rev Prat 14: 1307-82, 1964.

Richet G, Delzani JF, Mérillon H: L'hyperparathyroidie secondaire de l'insuffisance rénale. Gaz Med France 72:1143-57, 1965.

Hillemand P, Richet G, Laygue J, et al: Recto-colite hémorragique et amylose. Bull Soc Med Hop Paris 116: 189-93, 1965.

Albahary C, Richet G, Guillaume J, et al: Le rein dans le saturnisme professionel. Arch Mal Prof 26:5-19, 1965.

Richet G, Lissac J, Fillastre JP et al: Alcallllinurie par alvéolaire constante. Nephron 2:32-47, 1965.

Richet G, Mignon F, Ardaillou R: Goutte secondaire des néphropathies chroniques. Presse med. 73:633-8, 1965.

Richet G, Vachon F: [Neuropsychiatric disorders in chronic uremia]. Bulletins et Memoires de la Societe Medicale des Hopitaux de Paris 1965. Oct 29;116(13):Suppl:1253-72. LG - French

Richet G, Bohoun C: [The computer, biochemical analysis and the clinician]. Revue Francaise d Etudes Cliniques et Biologiques 1965 Dec;10(10):1018-9. LG - French

Gabe M, Peler M, Schramm B, Richet G: [Effect of variations in urinary pH on the intertubular fundamental substance of the renal medulla of white rats]. Comptes Rendus Hebdomadaires des Seances de l'Academie des Sciences - D: Sciences Naturelles 1965 Oct 4;261(14):2745-8. LG - French

Richet G, Gillot G, Vaysse J, Meyerovitch A: [Isolated thrombosis of the renal vein]. Journal d Urologie et de Nephrologie 1965 Sep;71(9):758-81. LG - French

Ardaillou R, Morel-Maroger L, Catheline G, Cote M, Richet G: [Renal amylosis secondary to a chronic urinary suppuration. Study of 3 cases]. Journal d Urologie et de Nephrologie 1965 Sep;71(9):752-7. LG - French

Amiel C, Ardaillou R, Savier C, Kin G, Pele MF, Richet G: [Diminution of the apparent production of ammonia by the kidney and probable augmentation of the medullar pNH3 after intravenous injection of acetazolamide in normal men]. Revue Francaise d Etudes Cliniques et Biologiques 1965 Dec;10(10):1093-7. LG - French

Richet G, Gillot C, Vaysse J, Meyerovitch A [Isolated thrombosis of the renal vein]. Presse Medicale 1965 g 28;73(36):2035-40. LG - French

Ardaillou R, Richet G: [Production of H+ ions from phospholipids of eggs]. Revue Francaise d Etudes Cliniques et Biologiques 1966 May;11(5):519-24. LG - French

Richet G, Albahary C, Morel-Maroger L,Gallium P, Galle P: [Renal changes in 23 cases of occupational lead poisoning]. Bulletins et Memoires de la Societe Medicale des Hopitaux de Paris 1966. Mar 25;117(5):441-66. LG - French

Richet G, Leroux-Robert C, Podevin R, Amiel C: [Trial treatments of hyperuricemia in patients with chronic renal failure. I. Action of benziodarone]. Revue Francaise d Etudes Cliniques et Biologiques 1966 Apr;11(4):396-404. LG - French

Richet G, Vachon F: [Neuropsychic disorders of chronic uremia]. Annales de Biologie Clinique 1966 May-Jun;24(5):565-82. LG - French

Richet G, Cottet J, Amiel C, Leroux-Robert C, Podevin R: [Treatment of hyperuricemia in gout and renal insufficiency with benziodarone]. Presse Medicale 1966 May 14;74(24):1247-9. LG - French

Lissac J, Fillastre JP, Vallois J, Richet G: [Alkalinuria induced by mannitol diuresis in dogs maintained at a constant alveolar PACO2. II. Momentary suppression by intravenous perfusion of calcium gluconate]. Revue Francaise d Etudes Cliniques et Biologiques 1966 Mar;11(3):281-4. LG - French

Richet G, Ardaillou R, Amiel C, Pele MF, Verbeckmoes R:[Effect of the ingestion of phospholipids on the production of H+ ions in man]. Revue Francaise d Etudes Cliniques et Biologiques 1966 Mar;11(3):274-81. LG - French

Richet G, Fabre J, Freudenreich J de, Podevin R: [Drug tolerance of uremic patients. Necessity for a toxicology adapted to visceral insufficiencies]. Presse Medicale 1966 Oct 29;74(46):2339-40. LG - French

Morel-Maroger L, Ganter P, Ardaillou R, Catheline G, Richet G: [Histochemical study of a lipid thesrismosis with renal, cutaneous and neurologic involvement. Its relation to Fabry's angiokeratosis and familial renal cytodystrophy]. Bulletins et Memoires de la Societe Medicale des Hopitaux de Paris 1966. Jan 14;117(1):49-57. LG - French

Richet G, Bohuon C: [The computer, biochemical analysis and the clinician]. Maroc Medical 1966 Jan;45(487):62-3. LG - French

Richet G, Amiel C, Bonvalet JP: [Renal manifestations of hyperparathyroidism]. Revue du Praticien 1966 Jan 11;16(2):211-29. LG - French

Richet G, Crosnier J, Lagrue G, Legrain M, Mery JP, Hamburger J: [Can one at the present me have a clear idea of the relation between gout and nephropathies?]. Presse Medicale 1966 Feb 26;74(11):529-31. LG - French

Rayer P, Berger J, Bouissou H, Crosnier J, Mery JP, Richet G, Hamburger J: [Is the uremia syndrome with hemolysis in children epidemic?]. Presse Medicale 1966 Feb 12;74(8):385-7. LG - French

Richet G: [Phosphoamino lipids as an alimentary source of hydrogen ions]. Prensa Medica Argenna 1966;53(9):902-3. LG - Spanish

Morel-Maroger L,- Leroux-Robert C, Richet G: Renal histology in 30 cases of isolated proteinuria. Frequency of hyaline and fibrinoid deposits in renal arterioles. Israel Journal of Medical Sciences 1967 Jan-Feb;3(1):98-105. LG - English

Ardaillou R, Vuagnat P, Mislaid G, Richet G: [Effects of thyrocalcitonin on kidney excretion of phosphorus, calcium and hydrogen ions in normal humans]. Journal de Physiologie 1967;59(1 Suppl):204. LG - French

Richet G, Fabre J, Freudenreich J de, Podevin R: [Drug tolerance of patients with uremia. Necessity of adjusted administration in organ insufficiency]. Capis Lekaru Ceskych 1967 Jul 28;106(31):851-4. LG - Czech

Fillastre JP, Mignon F, Sraer JD, Morel-Maroger L, Richet G: [Acute reversible renal insufficiency after prolonged treatment with dextran]. Presse Medicale 1967 Nov 25;75(50):2535-8. LG - French

Verger D, Leroux-Robert C, Ganter P, Richet G: [Gouty tophi in the renal medulla in chronic uremia. Study of 17 cases discovered from among 62 autopsies]. Nephron 1967;4(6):356-70. LG - French

Ardaillou R, Vuagnat P, Mislaid G, Richet G: [Effects of thyrocalcitonin on the renal excretion of phosphates, calcium and hydrogen ions in man]. Nephron 1967;4(5):298-314. LG - French

Merillon H, Sicard J, Meyerovitch A, Verger D, Weisgerber G, Richet G: [2 cases of elective thrombosis of the renal vein, 1 associated with a retroperitoneal syndrome, the other with a gastric neoplasm]. Bulletins et Memories de la Society Medicale des Hopitaux de Paris 1967. Jun 2-9;118(9):827-38. LG - French

Richet G, Amiel C, Leroux-Robert C, Morel-Maroger L: [Renal biopsy in isolated proteinuria. Incidence of vascular lesions]. Bulletins et Memoires de la Society Medicale des Hopitaux de Paris 1967. Feb 10;118(3):247-58. LG - French

Richet G, Amiel C, Leroux-Robert C, Morel-Maroger L: [Renal biopsies during isolated proteinurias. Frequency of vascular lesions]. Journal d Urologie et de Nephrologie 1967 Apr-May;73(4):369-80. LG - French

Verger D, Leroux-Robert C, Ganter P, Richet G: [Intra-renal deposits of urate in patients with chronic hyperuricemic renal insufficiency]. Journal d Urologie et de Nephrologie 1967 Apr-May;73(4):314-8. LG - French

Podevin R, Paillard F, Amiel C, Richet G: [Effect of benziodarone on the renal excretion of uric acid]. Revue Francaise d Etudes Cliniques et Biologiques 1967 Apr;12(4):361-7. LG - French

Ardaillou R, Vuagnat P, Kuntziger H, Richet G: [Excretion of free water under antidiuresis conditions and under the influence of ethacrynic acid]. Revue Francaise d Etudes Cliniques et Biologiques 1967. Jun-Jul;12(6):582-7. LG - French

Richet G: [Faculty of Medicine of Paris. Chair of clinical and experimental nephrology]. Presse Medicale 1967 Jun 24;75(31):1583-8. LG - French

Richet G, Blieu EE, Decourt J, De Gennes JL, Netter A, Rayer P, - Pequignot H: [The apparently primary conditions of water retention]. Presse Medicale 1967 Apr 15;75(18):919-21. LG - French

Fillastre JP, Basch A, Verger D, Morel Maroger L, Druet P, Richet G: [Nephroc syndrome revealing Waldenstrom's disease]. Journal d'Urologie et de Nephrologie 1968 Sep;74(9):725-32. LG - French

Maxwell M, Ducrot H, Meyer P, Richet G, Pequignot H: [Does the recent knowledge on the renin-angiotensin system have clinical applications?]. Presse Medicale 1968 Nov 30;76(47):2229-31. LG - French

Hornych A, Richet G: [Diminution of sodium transport by the jejunum at the time of expansion of extracellular volume in rats (behavior common to that of the nephron proximal convoluted tubule)]. Comptes Rendus Hebdomadaires des Seances de l'Academie des Sciences - D: Sciences Naturelles 1968 Nov 18;267(21):1750-3. LG - French

Hagege J, Gabe M, Richet G: [Increase in the number of kidney intercalary cells in rats given an overload of alkaline bicarbonate]. Comptes Rendus Hebdomadaires des Seances de l'Academie des Sciences - D: Sciences Naturelles 1968 Nov 13;266(20):1611-3. LG - French

Fillastre JP, Ardaillou R, Richet G; [Renal response to alkaline overload during chronic renal insufficiency]. Journal d'Urologie et de Nephrologie 1968 Sep;74(9):682-5. LG - French

Podevin R, Paillard F, Voudiclari S, Richet G: [The effect of niridazole (CIBA 32, 644 Ba) on the metabolism of uric acid in man]. Revue Francaise d Etudes Cliniques et Biologiques 1968 Jun-Jul;13(6):624-8. LG - French

Ducrot H, Auvert J, Hamburger J, Lagrue G, Legrain M, Richet G, Pequignot H: [Retroperitoneal fibrosis]. Presse Medicale 1968 Nov 2;76(42):2015-6. LG - French

Richet G, Meyerovitch A: [Nitrogen metabolism and chronic renal insufficiency]. Bulletins et Memoires de la Societe Medicale des Hopitaux de Paris 1968;119(12):977-80. LG - French

Fillastre JP, Ardaillou R, Richet G: [Bicarbonate excretion in response to an increased alkaline load in chronic renal insufficiency]. Nephron 1968;5(6):437-53. LG - French

Richet G, Ducrot H, Hamburger J, Legrain M, Maxwell M, Pequignot MH: [May medical therapy of arterial hypertension be used in patients with renal failure?]. Presse Medicale 1968 Nov 16;76(44):2103-6. LG - French

Di Maria G, Mignon F, Amiel C, Richet G, Olivier C: [The operative indication during surgical diseases of the abdomen complicated by acute renal insufficiency]. Memoires de l'Academie de Chirurgie 1968 Apr 24;94(12):427-33. LG - French

Podevin R, Paillard F, Hornych A, Ardaillou R, Fontanelle J, Richet G: [Kinetics of the appearance in the urine of para-aminohippuric acid(PAH) and of 2-14C uric acid in man. Effects of benziodarone, acetylsalicylic acid and pyrazinamide]. Revue Francaise d Etudes Cliniques et Biologiques 1968 May;13(5):513-22. LG - French

Podevin R, Ardaillou R, Paillard F, Fontanelle J, Richet G: [Study in man of the kinetics of the appearance of uric acid 2-14C in the urine]. Nephron 1968;5(2):134-40. LG - French

Richet G, Ducrot H, Hamburger J, Lagrue G, Legrain M, Pequignot H: [What is the value of changes recently made in diet therapy of chronic uremias]. Presse Medicale 1968 Apr 20;76(19):921-3. LG - French

Morel-Maroger L, Kramp R, Leroux-Robert C, Verger D, Richet G: [An apparently benign glomerular nephropathy: intercapillary fibrinoid deposits]. Presse Medicale 1968 Mar 9;76(12):559-62. LG - French

Chreen J, Gueniot M, Hardouin JP, Himbert J, Pichot P, Richet G, Roussel C, Ryckewaert AR, Debray JR: [Elaboration of a preventive medicine survey applicable to tomatic data processing by computer]. Presse Medicale 1969 Oct 25;77(45):1625-6. LG - French

Richet G, Hornych A: The effect of an expansion of extracellular fluids on net Na flux in the jejunum of rats. An experimental model for the study of the third factor. Nephron 1969;6(3):365-78. LG - English

Hagege J, Richet G, Gabe M: [Effect of respiratory acidosis on the distal portions of the albino rat nephron]. Comptes Rendus Hebdomadaires des Seances de l'Academie des Sciences. D: Sciences Naturelles 1969 Oct 20;269(16):1539-42. LG - French

Debray JR, Chreen J, Gueniot M, Hardouin JP, Himbert J, Pichot P, Richet G, Roussel C, Ryckewaert AR: [A new concept of preventive medicine using tomatic data processing by computer. II. Application to diseases and risks of the digestive apparatus and to cardiovascular diseases and risks].Annales de Medecine Interne 1969 Oct;120(10):589-96. LG - French

Richet G, Mignon F, Morel-Maroger L, Siguier F, Gode P, Delluc G, Leibovitch M: [Role of massive uratic obstruction of the tubular lumina occurring during treatment of a malignant blood disease in acute renal insufficiency]. Annales de Medecine Interne 1969 Oct;120(10):657-60. LG - French

Hornych A, Richet G: [Decrease of sodium transport by the jejunum during extracellular volume expansion in rats. An experimental model for the study of the 3d factor]. Journal d'Urologie et de Nephrologie 1969 Sep;75(9):657-64. LG - French

Mignon F, Josso F, Amiel C, Helenon C, Kuntziger H, Richet G: [Attempted treatment of renal vascular obstruction by streptokinase in 2 anuric patients]. Annales de Medecine Interne 1969 Oct;120(10):661-8. LG - French

Richet G, Durepaire H, Hartmann L, Ollier MP, Polonovski J, Maitrot B: [Asymptomatic familial hypolipoproteinemia involving mainly beta-lipoproteins revealed during the study of an isolated proteinuria]. Presse Medicale 1969 Dec 20;77(54):2045-8. LG - French

Hagege J, Richet G: [Acetazolamide and intercalary cells of the distal tubule in rats]. Journal d'Urologie et de Nephrologie 1969 Dec;75(12):960-2. LG - French

Perol C, Mignon F, Leroux-Robert C, Richet G: [Early death of acute renal insufficiency patients]. Annales de Medecine Interne 1969 Nov;120(11):749-53. LG - French

Fillastre JP, Verger D, Druet P, Richet G: [Fatal papillary necrosis]. Annales de Medecine Interne 1969 Apr;120(4):229-42. LG - French

Debray JR, Chreen J, Gueniot M, Hardouin JP, Himbert J, Pichot P, Richet G, Roussel C, Ryckewaert AR: [A new concept of preventive medicine utilizing tomatic information processing by computer. I. Introduction. Technical methods. Elaboration of the questionnaire. Application to the detection of diabetes, diseases and predisposing factors of the renal and urinary and respiratory systems]. Annales de Medecine Interne 1969 Jun-Jul;120(6):381-93. LG - French

Fillastre JP, Ardaillou R, Richet G: [Urinary pH and P CO2 in response to an increased alkaline load during chronic renal insufficiency]. Nephron 1969;6(2):91-101. LG - French

Ardaillou R, Fillastre JP, Milhaud G, Rousselet F, Delaunay F, Richet G: Renal excretion of phosphate, calcium and sodium during and after a prolonged thyrocalcitonin infusion in man. Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology & Medicine 1969, May;131(1):56-60. LG - English

Fillastre JP, Morel-Maroger L, Ducroiset B, Richet G: [Renal involvement in rheumatoid purpura in adults. Study of 20 renal biopsies. Value of the examination of the glomerulus in immunofluorescence]. Presse Medicale 1970 Dec 12;78(53):2375-8. LG - French

Morel-Maroger L, Fillastre JP, Gorin F, Galle P, Richet G: [Inhabitual histologic evolution of 3 cases of glomerulonephritis in adults]. Presse Medicale 1970 Mar 7;78(12):551. LG - French

Richet G: [Kidney complications caused by antibiotics. Introduction. Annales de Medecine Interne 1970 Oct;121(10):809-10. LG - French

Richet G, Hagege J, Gabe M: [Correlation between bicarbonate transfer and morphology of tubular cells distal to Henle's loop in the rat]. Nephron 1970;7(5):413-29. LG - French

Kleinknecht D, Verger D, Mignon F, Richet G: [Renal failure and acute pancreas. Significance of intra-glomerular fibrinoid deposits]. Annales de Medecine Interne 1970 Jan;121(1):17-28. LG - French

Ardaillou R, Sraer JD, Richet G: [Transjejunal movements of urea, water and sodium during chronic renal failure]. Journal d'Urologie et de Nephrologie 1970 Sep;76(9):839-46. LG - French

Richet G: [For a scientific approach to prevention]. Presse Medicale 1970 Nov 21;78(49):2192. LG - French

Hagege J, Richet G: [Study with scanning electron microscopy of apical surface of kidney distal convoluted tubule cells in rats]. Comptes Rendus Hebdomadaires des Seances de l'Academie des Sciences - D: Sciences Naturelles 1970 Jul 20;271(3):331-4. LG - French

Amiel C, Kuntziger H, Richet G: Micropuncture study of handling of phosphate by proximal and distal nephron in normal and parathyroidectomized rat. Evidence for distal reabsorption. Pflugers Archiv - European Journal of Physiology 1970;317(2):93-109. LG - English

Morel-Maroger L, Fillastre JP, Gorin F, Galle P, Richet G: [Unusual histological course in 3 cases of acute glomerulonephritis in adults]. Journal d'Urologie et de Nephrologie 1970 Apr-May;76(4):337-41. LG - French

Morel-Maroger L, Basch A, Danon F, Verroust P, Richet G: Pathology of the kidney in Waldenstrom's macroglobulinemia. Study of sixteen cases. New England Journal of Medicine 1970 Jul 16;283(3):123-9. LG - English

Richet G, Lopez de Novales E, Verroust P: Drug intoxication and neurological episodes in chronic renal failure. British Medical Journal 1970 May 16;2(5706):394-5. LG - English

Morel-Maroger L, Mery JP, Delrieu F, Richet G: [Immuno-histochemical study of 29 renal biopsies made during disseminated erythematous lupus]. Journal d Urologie et de Nephrologie 1971 Apr-May;77(4):367-79. LG - French

Hornych H, Befils M, Richet G:[Effects of exogenous angiotensin on the capillaries of cortical and juxta-medullary glomeruli of the rat: study with scanning electron microscopy]. Comptes Rendus Hebdomadaires des Seances de l'Academie des Sciences - D: Sciences Naturelles 1971 Sep 27;273(13):1129-31. LG - French

Verroust P, Mery JP, Morel-Maroger L, Clauvel JP, Richet G, Bouteiller AM, Fumagalli N: Glomerular lesions in monoclonal gammopathies and mixed essetinal cryoglobulinemias IgG-IgM. Advances in Nephrology From the Necker Hospital 1971;1:161-94. LG - English

Hagege J, Richet G: [Electron microscopy scanning of the urinary pole of the distal tubular cells in the rat submitted to gaseous acidosis and to metabolic alkalosis]. Comptes Rendus Hebdomadaires des Seances de l'Academie des Sciences - D: Sciences Naturelles 1971 Nov 15;273(20):1818-9. LG - French

Richet G, Rouques R: [Circulating immune complexes and glomerulopathies]. Annales de Biologie Clinique 1971;29(1):1-3. LG - French

Meyrier A, Verger D, Richet G: [Osteodystrophies of chronic uremia]. Schweizerische Rundsch fur Medizin Praxis 1971 Dec 14;60(50):1667-70. LG - French

Sraer JD, Rambaud JC, Bernier JJ, Richet G: [Study of seromucosal transfer of urea into the intestine in chronic uremia]. Biologie et Gastro-Enterologie 1971;3:Suppl 3:211-7. LG - French

Hornych A, Lore N, Richet G: Unidirectional Na flow in rat jejunum before and during intravenous infusion of 0.9 per cent NaCl. Revue Europeanne d'Etudes Cliniques et Biologiques 1971. Sep;16(7):673-8. LG - English

Fillastre JP, Morel-Maroger L, Richet G: Schonlein-Henoch purpura in adults. Lancet 1971 Jun 12;1(7711):1243-4. LG - English

Kanfer A, Richet G: [Intravascular coagulation and nephropathies]. Revue du Praticien 1972 May 21;22(15):2389-401. LG - French

Dormont J, Sobel A, Galand P, Boelaert J, Mery JP, Richet G: [Exploration of cellular immunity during systemic lupus erythematosus]. Journal d Urologie et de Nephrologie 1972 Dec;78(12):980-7. LG - French

Leroux-Robert C, Morel-Maroger L, Amiel C, Richet G: [Clinical and histological study of 60 cases of nephropathies discovered during pregnancy]. Journal d Urologie et de Nephrologie 1972 Sep;78(9):786-90. LG - French

Leroux-Robert C, Morel-Maroger L, Amiel C, Meyrier A, Sraer JD, Richet G: [Late renal biopsy of nephropathies discovered during pregnancy. Study of 60 cases]. Nouvelle Presse Medicale 1972 Dec 30;1(47):3181-6. LG - French

Sraer JD, Befils P, Maroger LM, Richet G: [Chronic interstitial nephritis due to phenylindanedione following an acute renal insufficiency]. Nouvelle Presse Medicale 1972 Jan 15;1(3):193-6. LG - French

Meyrier A, Leroux-Robert C, Sraer JD, Marsac J, Richet G: [Acute pericarditis in chronic renal failure treated with repeated hemodialysis]. Annales de Chirurgie Thoracique et Cardio-Vasculaire 1972 Apr;11(2):201-6. LG - French

Helenon C, Sraer JD, Meyrier A, Leroux-Robert C, Brutus J, Le Breton de Vannoise G,- Richet G: [Role of arteriography in the diagnosis and treatment of Kussmaul's disease (apropos of 2 cases)]. Journal de Radiologie, d'Electrologie, et de Medecine Nucleaire 1972 Nov;53(11):809-13. LG - French

Sraer JD, Morel Maroger L, Befils P, Ardaillou R, Helenon C, Richet G: [Kidney failure of vascular origin. Study of 25 cases]. Journal d'Urologie et de Nephrologie 1972 Apr-May;78(4):317-29. LG - French

Hornych H, Befils M, Richet G: The effect of exogenous angiotensin on superficial and deep glomeruli in the rat kidney. Kidney International 1972 Dec;2(6):336-43. LG - English

Hornych H,- Befils M, Richet G:- [Effect of exogenous angiotensin on superficial and juxtamedullary glomeruli in the rat. Scanning electron microscope study]. Journal d Urologie et de Nephrologie 1972 Apr-May;78(4):351. LG - French

Meyrier A, Devergie A, Leroux-Robert C, Sraer JD, Richet G: [Glomerular nephropathies treated with anticoagulants. Unusual course studied with immunofluorescence followed by repeated renal biopsies]. Journal d'Urologie et de Nephrologie 1972 Sep;78(9):738-40. LG - French

Meyrier A, Farde M, Richet G: Acute asymmetrical neuritis associated with rapid ultrafiltration dialysis. British Medical Journal 1972 Apr 29;2(808):252-4. LG - English

Morel-Maroger L, Leathem A, Richet G: Glomerular abnormalities in nonsystemic diseases. Relationship between findings by light microscopy and immunofluorescence in 433 renal biopsy specimens. American Journal of Medicine 1972 g;53(2):170-84. LG - English

Morel-Maroger L, Adam C, Richet G: The value of immunofluorescence in the diagnosis of glomerulonephritis not related to systemic diseases. Perspectives in Nephrology & Hypertension 1973;1 Pt 1:81-110. LG - English

Adam C, Morel-Maroger L, Richet G: Cryoglobulins in glomerulonephritis not related to systemic disease. Kidney International 1973 May;3(5):334-41. LG - English

Sraer JD, Befils P, Morel-Maroger L, Richet G: Vascular nephropathies with acute renal failure. Perspectives in Nephrology & Hypertension 1973;1 Pt 2(0):1035-46. LG - English

Richet G, Chevet D, Morel-Maroger L: Serial biopsies in diffuse proliferative glomerulonephritis in adults: an attempt for a better understanding of sporadic acute glomerulonephritis. Perspectives in Nephrology & Hypertension 1973;1 Pt 1:363-81. LG - English

Morel-Maroger L, Mery JP, Robert CL, Richet G: Mesangial IgA deposits. Perspectives in Nephrology & Hypertension 1973;1 Pt 1:301-4. LG - English

Morel-Maroger L, Mery JP, Richet G: Lupus nephritis: immunofluorescence study of 54 cases. Perspectives in Nephrology & Hypertension 1973;1 Pt 2(0):1183-6. LG - English

Werra P de, Morel-Maroger L, Leroux-Robert C, Richet G: [Glomerulonephritis with diffuse IgA deposits in the mesangium. Study of 96 adult cases]. Schweizerische medizinische Wochenschrift. Journal Suisse de Medecine 1973 May 26;103(21):761-8. LG - French

Werra P de, Morel-Maroger L, Leroux-Robert C, Richet G:[Glomerulitis with diffuse IgA deposits in the mesangium]. Schweizerische Medizinische Wochenschrift. Journal Suisse de Medecine 1973 Jun 2;103(22):797-803. LG - French

Scetbon V, Meyrier A, Richet G: [Blind nephrectomy in retroperitoneal liposclerosis with unilateral predominance. Effects on kidney function]. Journal d'Urologie et de Nephrologie 1973 Dec;79(12 Pt 2):305-6. LG - French

Chevet D, Leroux-Robert C, Morel-Maroger L, Carer F, Richet G: [Initial kidney failure in diffuse acute endocapillary proliferative glomerulonephritis in adults]. Annales de Medecine Interne 1973 Nov;124(11):771-80. LG - French

Richet G, Adam C, Morel-Maroger L: [Cryoglobulins during diffuse proliferative glomerulonephritis]. Minerva Nefrologica 1973 Jul-Oct;20(4):243-6. LG - French

Meyrier A, Marsac J, Richet G: The influence of a high calcium carbonate intake on bone disease in patients undergoing hemodialysis. Kidney International 1973 g;4(2):146-53. LG - English

Meyrier A, Marsac J, Billard D, Richet G: [Evolution of bone lesions in repeated hemodialysis]. Annales de Medecine Interne 1973 Feb;124(2):85-90. LG - French

Mery JP, Morel-Maroger L, Boelaert J, Richet G: [Anatomo-clinical development of diffuse and focal glomerulitis associated with systemic lupus erythematosus]. Journal d'Urologie et de Nephrologie 1973 Apr-May;79(4):321-32. LG - French

Morel-Maroger L, Kourilsky O, Mignon F, Richet G: Antitubular basement membrane antibodies in rapidly progressive poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis: report of a case. Clinical Immunology & Immunopathology 1974 Jan;2(2):185-94. LG - English

Richet G: [Editorial: Renal biopsy]. Acta Clinica Belgica 1974;29(6):341-4. LG-French

Richet G: [Acute renal insufficiency of vascular origin]. Revue Medicale de Liege 1974 Jan 1;29(1):1-6. LG - French

Richet G, Adam C, Morel-Maroger L: Cryoglobulinemia in glomerulonephritis exclusive of general diseases. Advances in Nephrology From the Necker Hospital 1974;3:119-32. LG - English

Hagege J, Gabe M, Richet G: Scanning of the apical pole of distal tubular cells under differing acid-base conditions. Kidney International 1974 Feb;5(2):137-46. LG - English

Richet G, Fillastre JP, Morel-Maroger L, Bariety J: Change from diffuse proliferative to membranous glomerulonephritis: serial biopsies in four cases. Kidney International 1974 Jan;5(1):57-71. LG - English

Kourilsky O, Poy-Lemaux C, Lucas JP, Neuilly G, Richet G: [Letter: Positive Coombs' test with anticomplement during glomerulopathies]. Nouvelle Presse Medicale 1974 Oct 6;3(36):2339. LG - French

Leroux-Robert C, Befils M, Richet G: [Pregnancy toxemia. Mechanism, prevention and treatment]. Revue du Praticien 1974 Nov 11;24(51):4523-8. LG - French

Rychewaert A, Richet G, Lemaire V, Begue MC, Fenelon JP: [Serum calcium levels in a population of 6048 men; variations with age and correlation with other biological data]. Revue du Rhumatisme et des Maladies Osteo-Arculaires 1974 Jul-Sep;41(7):473-8. LG - French

Befils M, Blanchon F, Salazar H, Richet G: [Renal amyloidosis discovered by renal biopsy (apropos of 67 cases)]. Revue du Praticien 1974 Apr 11;24(21):1913-4, 1917-8, 1923-4. LG - French

Kourilsky O, Poy-Lemaux C, Lucas JP, Neuilly G, Richet G: Significance of complement-positive Coombs test in patients with glomerular disease. Lancet 1974 Sep 21;2(7882):683-6. LG - English

Hagege J, Richet G: Dark cells of the distal convoluted tubules and collecting ducts. I. Morphological data. [Review] [29 refs] Fortschritte der Zoologie 1975;23(2-3):288-98. LG - English

Saint-Hillier Y, Morel-Maroger L, Woodrow D, Richet G: Focal and segmental hyalinosis. Advances in Nephrology From the Necker Hospital 1975;5:67-88. LG - English

Richet G: [Controlled therapeutic trials and glomerulonephritis]. Journal d'Urologie et de Nephrologie 1975 Sep;81(9):649-53. LG - French

Richet G: Controlled clinical trials and glomerulonephritis. Clinical Nephrology 1975 Dec;4(6):215-6. LG - English

Godin M, Mery JP, Richet G: [Letter Hypercalcemia induced by prolonged intake of catarluse]. Nouvelle Presse Medicale 1975 Nov 29;4(41):2951-2. LG - French

Richet G, Hagege J: Dark cells of the distal convoluted tubules and collecting ducts. II. Physiological significance. Fortschritte der Zoologie 1975;23(2-3):299-306. LG - English

Richet G: [Renal biopsy. 20 years later]. Revue du Praticien 1975 Nov 21;25(53):4237-42. LG - French

Richet G: [Clinical nephrology continually renewed]. Revue du Praticien 1975 Nov 21;25(53):4131-3. LG - French

Whitworth JA, Morel-Maroger L, Mignon F, Richet G: The significance of extracapillary proliferation. Proceedings of the European Dialysis & Transplant Association 1975;11:522-5. LG - English

Ryckewaert A, Richet G, Lemaire V, Begue MC, Fenelon JP: [Study of blood calcium in a population of 3148 women. Variations with age. Correlation with other biological values]. Revue du Rheumatisme et des Maladies Osteo-Arculaires 1975 Jul-Sep;42(7-9):461-5. LG - French

Helenon C, Nochy D, Sraer JD, Michel C, Brutus J, Richet G: ["Pearl necklace" arteries in vascular nephropathy with acute renal insufficiency (author's transl)]. Journal de Radiologie, d'Electrologie, et de Medecine Nucleaire 1975, Mar;56(3):219-25. LG - French

Richet G, Mery G, Morel-Maroger L: [Letter: Treatment of lupic nephropathies]. Nouvelle Presse Medicale 1975 Mar 22;4(12):884. LG - French

Boumendil-Podevin EF, Podevin RA, Richet G: Uricosuric agents in uremic sera. Identification of indoxyl sulfata and hippuric acid. Journal of Clinical Investigation 1975 Jun;55(6):1142-52. LG - English

Richet G: [Hematuria caused by glomerulonephritis]. Revue du Praticien 1976 Mar 11;26(15):1135-6, 1141-4, LG - French

Richet G: [Macroscopic hematuria]. Revue du Praticien 1976 Mar 11;26(15):1065-6. LG - French

Whitworth JA, Morel-Maroger L, Mignon F, Richet G: The significance of extracapillary proliferation. Clinicopathological review of 60 patients. Nephron 1976;16(1):1-19. LG - English

Kanfer A, Sraer JD, Feintuch MJ, Morel-Maroger L, Befils P, Richet G: [Acute kidney failure during periarteritis nodosa]. Nouvelle Presse Medicale 1976 Sep 18;5(30):1883-8. LG - French

Morel-Maroger L, Mery JP, Droz D, Godin M, Verroust P, Kourilsky O, Richet G: The course of lupus nephritis: contribution of serial renal biopsies. Advances in Nephrology From the Necker Hospital 1976;6:79-118. LG - English

Chavaz A, Mignon F, Kanfer A, Richet G: [Treatment of kidney failure in multiple myeloma by chronic hemodialysis. Apropos of 4 cases]. Nouvelle Presse Medicale 1976 Feb 28;5(9):565-9. LG - French

Mayaud C, Marsac J, Kanfer A, Scetbon V, Richet G: [Acute microbial interstitial nephropathies during septicemia of urologic point of departure]. Journal d Urologie et de Nephrologie 1976;82 Suppl 2:182-9. LG - French

Meyrier A, Blanc E, Reignier A, Richet G: Unusual aspects of the dialysis disequilibrium syndrome. Clinical Nephrology 1976 Jul;6(1):311-4. LG - English

Befils M, Morel-Maroger L, Sraer JD, Kanfer A, Kourilsky O, Richet G: Acute renal failure of glomerular origin during visceral abscesses. New England Journal of Medicine 1976 Jul 22;295(4):185-9. LG - English

Vahanian A, Mignon F, Chavaz A, Pauleau N, Helenon C, Richet G: [Acute angiitis following penicillin therapy. Apropos of a case of arteriographic regression of intrarenal aneurysmal lesions]. Journal d'Urologie et de Nephrologie 1977 Apr-May;83(4-5):285-9. LG - French

Helenon C, Bigot JM, Jacri P, Sraer D, Mignon F, Richet G: [Arteriographic appearances seen in the course of development of the lesions of polyarteritis nodosa (author's transl)]. Journal de Radiologie, d Electrologie, et de Medecine Nucleaire 1977. Jan;58(1):45-50. LG - French

Befils M, Gibert C, Morel-Maroger L, Sraer JD, Kanfer A, Meyrier A, Kourilsky O, Vachon F, Richet G: Glomerulonephritis in severe bacterial infections with and without endocarditis. Advances in Nephrology From the Necker Hospital 1977;7:217-34. LG - English

Chavaz A, Mignon F, Morel-Maroger L, Richet G: [Extramembranous glomerulitis. Apropos of 92 cases]. Schweizerische Medizinische Wochenschrift. Journal Suisse de Medecine 1977 Jul 2;107(26):899-907. LG - French

Arias-Rodriguez M, Sraer JD, Kourilsky O, Smith MD, Verroust PJ, Meyrier A, Kuntziger HE, Kanfer A, Nessim V, Neuilly G, Morel-Maroger L, Richet G: Renal transplantation and immunological abnormalities in thrombotic microangiopathy of adults: report of 5 cases. Transplantation 1977 Apr;23(4):360-5. LG - English

Befils M, Richet G: [Acute glomerular nephropathies and their treatment]. Revue du Praticien 1977 Nov 11;27(51):3473-4, 3477-80. LG - French.

Hornych H, Richet G: Dissociated effect of sodium intake on glomerular and pressor responses to angiotensin. Kidney International 1977 Jan;11(1):28-34. LG - English

Kuntz D, Chreen JM, Ryckewaert A, Isidor C, Guize L, Richet G: [Distribution and correlations of serum uric-acid in two French adult populations : 13,885 men and 6,861 women (author's transl)]. Pathologie Biologie 1978 Nov;26(8):481-8. LG - French

Richet G, Mayaud C: The course of acute renal failure in pyelonephritis and other types of interstitial nephritis. Nephron 1978;22(1-3):124-7. LG - English

Richet G, Sraer JD, Kourilsky O, Morel-Maroger L: [Kidney puncture biopsy in acute renal failure]. Revue du Praticien 1978 Nov 1;28(49):3769-74. LG - French

Richet G: [Introduction. The double emergency of acute uremia : dialysis and treatment of renal lesions]. Revue du Praticien 1978 Nov 1;28(49):3765-6. LG - French

Hillion D, Mignon F, Ramee MP, Morel-Maroger L, Richet G: [Criteria for prognosis and evolution of nephropathy in adult rheumatoid purpura. 28 cases]. Annales de Medecine Interne 1978 g-Sep;129(8-9):505-8. LG - French

Richet G, Sraer JD, Kourilsky O, Kanfer A, Mignon F, Whitworth J, Morel-Maroger L: [Renal puncture biopsy in acute renal insufficiency]. Annales de Medecine Interne 1978, Jul;129(6-7):445-7. LG - French

Denis J, Mignon F, Ramee MP, Morel-Maroger L, Richet G: [Extramembranous glomerulitis associated with visceral tumours. Clinical and histological study based upon 10 cases and a review of the literature (author's transl)]. Nouvelle Presse Medicale 1978 Mar 25;7(12):991-6. LG - French

Richet G: Subclinical forms of glomerulonephritis. Clinical Nephrology 1978 May;9(5):179-83. LG - English

Sraer JD, Blanc E, Delarue F, Kanfer A, Ardaillou R, Richet G: Effect of calcium and hydrogen ion on the fibrinolytic activity of isolated renal glomeruli from rat. Kidney International 1979 Mar;15(3):238-45. LG - English

Kuntz D, Chreen JM, Ryckewaert A, Isidor C, Guize L, Richet G: [Distribution and correlations of serum uric-acid in two French adult populations: 13,885 men and 6,861 women (author's transl)]. Semaine des Hopitaux 1979 Feb 8-15;55(5-6):241-8. LG - French

Mignon F, Vasmant D, Richet G, Wang A, Morel-Maroger L, Brouet JC: [Non-amyloid nephrotic syndrome: first isolated manifestation of a kappa light chain myeloma (author's transl)]. [Review] [10 refs]. Annales de Medecine Interne 1979;130(11):513-6. LG - French

Verroust P, Ben-Maiz H, Morel-Maroger L, Mahfoud A, Genite M, Benayed H, Richet G: A clinical and immunopathological study of 304 cases of glomerulonephritis in Tunisia. European Journal of Clinical Investigation, 1979 Feb;9(1):75-9. LG - English

Befils M, Donsimoni R, Uzan S, Colau JC, Salat-Baroux J, Richet G: [Recent data concerning the physiopathology and classification of arterial hypertension during pregnancy]. Journal d'Urologie et de Nephrologie 1979 Dec;85(12):805-13. LG - French

Richet G, Sraer JD, Kourilsky O, Kanfer A, Morel-Maroger L: [Renal biopsy in acute uremia. Therapeutic significance and implications for hospitals]. Bulletin de l'Academie Nationale de Medecine 1979 Oct;163(7):709-13. LG - French

Befils M, Richet G: [Essential arterial hypertension: a presumed culprit, the kidney]. - Revue du Praticien 1979 Dec 1;29(55):4245-6, 4249-50, 4253. LG - French

Uzan S, Giacomini P, Befils M, Colau JC, Richet G, Salat-Baroux J: [Arterial hypertension and pregnancy: obstetric management]. Journal d'Urologie et de Nephrologie 1979 Dec;85(12):814-23). LG - French

Richet G: [Nephrology. Introduction]. Revue du Praticien 1979 Apr 21;29(23):1835-6. LG - French

Morel-Maroger L, Kanfer A, Solez K, Sraer JD, Richet G: Prognostic importance of vascular lesions in acute renal failure with microangiopathic hemolytic anemia (hemolytic-uremic syndrome): clinicopathologic study in 20 adults. Kidney International 1979, May;15(5):548-58. LG - English

Kanfer A, Roland J, Chatelet F, Richet G: [Acute hyperphosphatemic renal insufficiency in lymphosarcoma (proceedings)]. Journal d'Urologie et de Nephrologie 1979 Apr-May;85(4-5):337. LG - French

Kanfer A, Richet G, Roland J, Chatelet F: Extreme hyperphosphataemia causing acute anuric nephrocalcinosis in lymphosarcoma. British Medical Journal 1979 May 19;1(6174):1320-1. LG - English

Mignon F, Morel-Maroger L, Cerf M, Preud'homme JL, Richet G: [Hepatic and renal deposits of kappa light chains revealing a dysglobulinemia (author's transl)]. Nephrologie 1980;1(4):167-70. LG - French

Richet G, Sraer JD, Kourilsky O, Kanfer A: [Emergencies in acute medical uremias]. Nephrologie 1980;1(2):55-6. LG - French

Befils M, Delche MC, Morel-Maroger L, Leroux-Robert C, Richet G: [Vascular and obstetrical prognosis after hypertension during pregnancy: value of renal biopsy (author's transl)]. Annales de Medecine Interne 1980;131(6):339-42. LG - French

Sraer JD, Sraer J, Ardaillou R, Richet G: The glomerulus: site of synthesis and target for hormones and chemical mediators. Advances in Nephrology From the Necker Hospital 1981;10:293-314. LG - English

Hartmann L, Ambert JP, Ollier-Hartmann MP, Richet G, Raynaud C: Mercuric chloride and ethacrynic acid binding to uromucoid or Tamm-Horsfall protein. Biomedicine 1981 Mar;35(1):30-4. LG - English, French

Hartmann L, Delaunay J, Ollier-Hartmann MP, Bringuier A, Richet G: Tamm-Horsfall protein and erythrocyte ghosts immunologically cross-react. Biomedicine 1981 Mar;35(1):1-3. LG - English

Richet G, Kourilsky O, Marnez-Ara J, Sraer JD, Verroust P, Ronco P, Morel-Maroger M: [Management of acute renal insufficiency in myeloma and certain types of glomerulonephritis with plasma exchange]. Bulletin de l'Academie Nationale de Medecine 1981 May;165(5):573-9. LG - French

Kourilsky O, Sraer JD, Marnez-Ara J, Tembely H, Verroust P, Ronco P, Brault D, Rouquette AM, Egler R,Poy-Lemaux C, Gerotta I, Richet G: [Plasma exchange by membrane filtration. Experience of the Tenon Hospital]. Revue Francaise de Transfusion et Immuno-Hematologie 1981 Dec;24(6):643-55. LG - French

Kourilsky O, Gubler MC, Morel-Maroger L, Adam-Rordorf C, Sraer JD, Kanfer A, Verroust PJ, Richet G: A new form of familial glomerulonephritis. Nephron 1982;30(2):97-105. LG - English

Befils M, Larget D, Chreen J, Salat-Baroux J, Richet G: [Arterial hypertension in pregnancy and preventive medicine. A study of the etiological factors and prognosis in 442 cases]. Bulletin de l'Academie Nationale de Medecine 1983 May;167(5):413-9. LG - French

Befils M, Kouki F, Mignon F, Camus JP, Morel-Maroger L, Richet G: Clinical significance of anti-Sm antibodies in systemic lupus erythematosus. American Journal of Medicine 1983 Feb;74(2):201-5. LG - English

Knauf H, Lubcke R, Rottger P, Baumann K, Richet G: Relationship of dark cells to the transport of H+/HCO3- and K+ ions: a microperfusion study in the rat submaxillary duct. Kidney International 1983 Feb;23(2):350-7. LG - English

Befils M, Larget D, Chreen JM, Uzan S,- Richet G: [Epidemiologic aspects of hypertension in pregnancy. Study of 442 cases]. Archives des Maladies du Coeur et des Vaisseaux 1984 Oct;77(11):1200-3. LG - French

Melcion C,- Mougenot B, Baudouin B, Ronco P, Moulonguet-Doleris L, Vanhille P, Befils M, Morel-Maroger L, Verroust P, Richet G: Renal failure in myeloma: relationship with isoelectric point of immunoglobulin light chains. Clinical Nephrology 1984 Sep;22(3):138-43. LG - English

Richet G, Mougenot B, Roland J, [Renal involvement in scleroderma]. Annales de Medecine Interne 1984;135(8):594-600. LG - French

Makdassy R, Befils M, Meyrier A, Mignon F, Moulonguet-Doleris L, Richet G: Pathologic conditions associated with IgA mesangial nephropathy: preliminary results. Contributions to Nephrology 1984;40:292-5. LG - English

Richet G: IgA mesangial nephropathy. Contributions to Nephrology 1984;40:1-3. LG - English

Hagege J, Wahbe F, Wiemeyer A, Richet G: Dopamine in rat kidney slices--its production and its histofluorescent localization. Contributions to Nephrology 1985;49:140-4. LG - English

Hagege J, Richet G: Proximal tubule dopamine histofluorescence in renal slices incubated with L-dopa. Kidney International 1985 Jan;27(1):3-8. LG - English

Richet G: When should renal biopsy be done in acute uremia? Tomorrow could be too late. Kidney International - Supplement 1985 Dec;17:S152-3. LG - English

Richet G: Biochemical mechanisms of glomerular dysfunction and lesions. Nippon Jinzo Gakkai Shi. Japanese Journal of Nephrology 1985 Sep;27(9):1223-8. LG - English

Befils M, Lantz B, Paillard F, Richet G: Effects of tertatolol in hypertensive patients with chronic renal failure. American Journal of Nephrology 1986;6 Suppl 2:50-4. LG - English

Brunisholz M, Genite-Legendre M, Ronco PM, Moullier P, Pontillon F, Richet G, Verroust PJ: Characterization of monoclonal antibodies specific for human Tamm-Horsfall protein. Kidney International 1986 May;29(5):971-6. LG - English

Richet G, Hagege J, Wahbe F: [Extraneuronal production of dopamine by the rat kidney]. Bulletin et Memoires de l'Academie Royale de Medecine de Belgique 1986;141(5-6):350-9. LG - French

Richet G: J. P. Merrill: a founder of scientific clinical nephrology. Artificial Organs 1987 Dec;11(6):445-6. LG - English

Ronco P, Brunisholz M, Genite-Legendre M, Chatelet F, Verroust P, Richet G: Physiopathologic aspects of Tamm-Horsfall protein: a phylogenetically conserved marker of the thick ascending limb of Henle's loop. [Review] [87 refs] Advances in Nephrology From the Necker Hospital 1987;16:231-49. LG - English

Richet G: [The origin of uremia]. Nephrologie 1987;8(6):277-82. LG - French

Richet G, Wahbe F, Hagege J, Wiemeyer W: Extraneuronal production of dopamine by kidney slices in normo and hypertensive rats. Clinical & Experimental Hypertension - Part A, Theory & Practice 1987;9. Suppl 1:127-34. LG - English

Ronco P, Allegril, Brian E, Chatelet F, Van Leer EH, Verroust P, Richet G: Antigenic targets in membranous glomerulonephritis. Polskie Archiwum Medycyny Wewnetrznej 1988, Oct;80(4):178-88. LG - English

Schwartz L, Richet G:[Evaluation by U.E.R. of health sciences: medicine, pharmacy and odontology]. Bulletin de l'Academie Nationale de Medecine 1988 May;172(5):705-10. LG - French

Richet G: Early history of uremia. Kidney International 1988 May;33(5):1013-5. LG - English

Richet G: [Intrarenal hemodynamics and arterial hypertension. Talk about it or not? (editorial)]. Nephrologie 1988;9(1):1. LG - French

Richet G: [Eulogy for Pl Castaigne (1916-1988)]. Bulletin de l'Academie Nationale de Medecine 1989 Feb;173(2):207-15. LG - French

Richet G: A brief history of the International Society of Nephrology. Kidney International 1989 Nov;36(5):938-40. LG - English

Richet G: [Monoclonal antibodies: a study method in experimental and human glomerulonephritis]. [Review] [32 refs] Bulletin de l'Academie Nationale de Medecine 1989 Mar;173(3):321-7; discussion 328. LG - French

Richet G: [A changing scene: the arteriolar wall in the hypertensive (editorial)]. Nephrologie 1989;10(2):45. LG - French

Richet G: [The beginning of experimental nephrology? The bilateral nephrectomies of J.N. Comhaire in 1803]. Nephrologie 1990;11(1):1-3. LG - French

Richet G: [Evaluation of medical faculties in France]. - Bulletin et Memoires de l'Academie Royale de Medecine de Belgique 1990;145(8-9):333-8; discussion 339-40. LG - French

Richet G: From Bright's disease to modern nephrology: Pierre Rayer's innovative method of clinical investigation. Kidney International 1991 Apr;39(4):787-92. LG - English

Richet G: Jean Hamburger 1909-1992. Kidney International 1992 Sep;42(3):810-2. LG - English

Richet G: [History of hemodialysis in acute uremia]. Revue du Practicien 1992 May 1;42(9):1144-6. LG - French

Richet G: Edema and uremia from 1827 to 1905: the first faltering steps of renal pathophysiology. Kidney International 1993 Jun;43(6):1385-96. LG - English

Richet G: [Albuminuria seen by Charles Talamon and nephrology at Tenon hospital]. Presse Medicale 1993 Oct 23;22(32):1617-21. LG - French

Richet G: [The medical and scientific work of Jean Hamburger]. . Bulletin de l'Academie Nationale de Medecine 1993 Jan;177(1):83-80. LG - French

Richet G: Purchasing research from or for the NHS [letter; comment]. Journal of the Royal College of Physicians of London 1994. Nov-Dec;28(6):496. LG - English

Richet G: The chemistry of urinary stones around 1800: a first in clinical chemistry. Kidney International 1995 Sep;48(3):876-86. LG - English

Richet G: An unrecognized renal physiologist: Friedrich Wohler. American Journal of Nephrology 1995;15(6):528-32. LG - English

Richet G: [Milieu interieur: from urea to radioimmunologic assays through flame photometry]. Nephrologie 1996;17(2):131-6. LG - French

de Wardener H, Richet G: The birth of Kidney International. Kidney International - Supplement 1996 Dec;57:S107-9. LG - English

Richet G: Hamburger's achievement with early renal transplants. American Journal of Nephrology 1997;17(3-4):315-7. LG - English